Frontispiece of the first volume of Diderot's encyclopedia in the library of the Teyler's Museum.
History

Diderot’s Encyclopedia: The Spirit of Enlightenment

July 27, 2020

The Encyclopedia of Diderot was a gift of Enlightenment. It was created with the goal to break with the past in order to usher possibilities for progress in the future. It advanced reason and science as important tools for human perfection […]

Emblem from 2017 marking 100 years since the Russian revolution.
History

The Making of Lenin: The Beginning of Bolshevik Revolution

July 16, 2020

Living in exile, Lenin rejected the idea of a middle-class democratic move in Russia. He wanted to employ his revolutionary strategies and overthrow the Tsar. The First World War gave him the opportunity that he was waiting for, and thus began another wave of revolution in Russia. […]

Soviet Union Flag bearing the hammer and sickle symbol.
History

The Making of Lenin: The Creation of the Bolshevik Faction

July 16, 2020

Vladimir Lenin did not want to toe the line within the bureaucratic structure of the Social Democratic Party. He was determined to wage an absolute war upon tsarism. This sheer determination created the Bolshevik faction within the Social Democratic Party. […]

Lapel pin from USSR times, bearing the face of baby Lenin.
History

The Making of Lenin: The Early Life of The Russian Communist Leader

July 16, 2020

Influenced by the Russian radicalism of the 19th century and two personal tragedies, Vladimir Lenin devoted himself to create a revolution. A self-disciplined individual, he was not deterred by ostracism or spies. Immensely popular among his friends and followers, he was successful in creating a brand of Marxism in Russia. […]

Monument to the outstanding figure of revolution and civil war in Russia, Vasily Chapaev.
History

Indigenous Revolutions in Russia and Imported Marxism

July 13, 2020

The people of Russia had envisioned a peasant utopia, but they lacked a sense of direction. Slowly, they adopted Marxism, which was in sharp contrast to their utopian model. Later, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known as Lenin adapted Marx’s teachings to Russian conditions. […]

Lenin and Workers Monument outside Gorky Park in Moscow, Russia
History

Russia: The Unlikely Place for a Proletarian Revolution

July 13, 2020

Years of hardships, coupled with insensitive and unsympathetic political system drove the peasants and the workers against the Tsar. One bloody event on a Sunday sparked the unexpected and the unplanned revolution in Russia in 1905. […]

A map of Germany during the Thirty Years' War.
European History

The End of the Thirty Years’ War: The Treaty of Westphalia

July 13, 2020

The bloody three decades of war ended on October 24, 1648 with the signing of The Treaty of Westphalia. The treaty gave Europe and the world a new formula to live with, sovereign independence of territorial rulers and the right of the religious minorities to practice their religion. […]

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