An image of a matchstick with the sillhoutte of a face being lit up and facing paper cut outs of human faces.

Why Do Revolutions Happen?

January 14, 2022

Revolutions arise because of different crises, most common being a state’s attempt to modernize and reform. Having a singular message allows revolutionaries to mount an effective attack against the old system. […]

The National Emblem of China.

China: Successes and Challenges in the Reform Era

December 31, 2021

As China went through the reform era in the 1980s, with people free to express their individualities and the spread of the globalization fever across the country, a new set of social problems took birth. […]

Photo of the lion statue in front of the Palace Museum.

Hua Guofeng and the Gang of Four

November 7, 2021

The Gang of Four was blamed for everything that had gone wrong in China during the Cultural Revolution. Their sudden downfall required a major behavioral adjustment on the part of all Chinese people. […]

Industrial exhaust pipes in China with smoke coming out of them.

Hua Guofeng’s Economic Development Plan: Flaws in Design

November 7, 2021

Hua Guofeng’s “Four Modernizations” program included the plan to fast-track China’s modernization by constructing 120 major new industrial projects. However, there were flaws in planning and implementation, leading to huge losses. […]

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