A painting representing the ratifying of the Treaty of Westphalia.
European History

The World Before the Treaty of Westphalia

July 12, 2020

The treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648 ended the terrible Thirty Years’ War in Europe. The treaty acknowledged the divided sovereignties and divided authority of the member states of the empire. This new model was a sharp contrast from the earlier models of authority: the church and the state.
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Tourane bay (today Da Nang) bombing by French fleet, China. Created by Lebreton, published on L'Illustration, Journal Universel, Paris, 1858.
History

The Opium War in China, Nemesis, and Consequences

July 12, 2020

Nemesis was the symbol of the new industrial world in the Opium War in China. Treaties, rebellions, ironies, and modernity were all involved in the war’s consequences, making it a global turning point. However seemingly district, these elements worked together like never before. […]

An engraving of gods on the wall of the Sobek temple.
Ancient History

Religion and Deities of Ancient Egypt

July 12, 2020

A look inside the ancient Egyptian religion and their different types of deities: From hybrid gods to gods with non-animal forms, and why did ancient Egyptians choose to worship these specific forms. […]

An image of the ruins of an ancient Egyptian temple in Luxor, Egypt.
Ancient History

Religious Order of Ancient Egypt

July 12, 2020

Understanding the religious life of ancient Egypt: From the ordinary people to priests and pharaohs to deities, covering the entire religious order of ancient Egypt. […]

An image of the Stella of Pharaoh Akhenaten.
Ancient History

Private Religion and Monotheism in Ancient Egypt

July 11, 2020

Ordinary People in ancient Egypt had their own private religion and domestic deities, whom they worshipped for different reasons. And, briefly, there a time in ancient Egypt when monotheism or at least henotheism broke the stranglehold of polytheism. […]

Truckload of excited soldiers during Russian Revolution. St. Petersburg, 1917.
European History

The Russian Revolution

July 9, 2020

There were many forces involved in the Russian Revolution of 1917. The Bolsheviks were the one group that by using their opportunities carried out the revolution. These opportunities were created by some of the allies and secret societies that supported them financially. […]

Lenin and Workers Monument outside Gorky Park in Moscow, Russia
European History

Supporters and Friends of Vladimir Lenin

July 9, 2020

There were many forces and factors influencing the course of Russia’s 1917 Revolution. As the leader of the revolution, Lenin had the financial support of some famous friends and allies. Without their help and the financial resources, the fate of the revolution would have been different. […]

Socialists in Union Square, New York City on May Day 1912
European History

Marxism after Marx in Europe and America

July 8, 2020

The socialist movement continued to spread after the death of Marx. In the early 20th century, many European countries welcomed socialism and created many social and political changes. In America, the socilst movement was different from Europe. Unlike Europe, no mass socialism was formed in America. […]

Barricades during the Paris Commune, near the Place de la Concorde
European History

Marxism: Yesterday and today

July 8, 2020

With the introduction of the Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx created a revolution in socialist ideas under what was later termed as scientific socialism. But what happened to Marxism and Marxism-inspired movements after Marx died? These movements continued to thrive and swept across Europe. […]

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