Futuristic concept of a woman with virtual reality glasses playing with neon lights.

The Probability We Live in a Created Simulation

May 23, 2021

Although we still haven’t created simulated worlds, we can still predict how likely it is that we’ll do it in the future. We know if we do, then there’s a good chance we are in a simulation. […]

Game and probability theory concept
Applied Math

Our Random World—Probability Defined

April 17, 2017

While it’s nice to think that our challenge in life is to get rid of uncertainty and be in complete control of everything, that is not going to happen. One of life’s real challenges is to deal with the uncertain and the unknown in some sort of an effective way; and that is the realm of probability. […]

An image of the flag Florence.

Niccolò Capponi and Florence’s Capitulation

June 14, 2022

Niccolò Capponi tried hard to rekindle his old friendship with Pope Clement VII in order to avert war. However, caught between the pope and the Emperor Charles V, there was no easy way out for Florence. […]

Charlemagne's old engraved portrait by Gagniet
Content Spotlight

Charlemagne’s Final Years, Death, and Burial Site

March 28, 2022

Charlemagne’s imperial title gave him a greater sense of responsibility. He spent more time on legislating, ruling, and governing than on traveling and campaigning. However, with age, his health deteriorated quite a bit. […]

A digital illustration of the expansion of the universe from the Big Bang to the present.

Understanding the Nature of the Big Bang Theory

November 16, 2021

The Big Bang theory suggests that the universe came into existence at one specific point in time. It also indicates that the universe subsequently went through significant expansion after its birth. […]

A person's hand arranging blocks with medical icons in a pyramid shape.
Modern Philosophy

“Elysium” and the Public Healthcare System

August 19, 2021

What “Elysium” describes is not unlike what capitalism has produced in America. When healthcare is treated as a commodity, it becomes expensive because it’s highly valued and requires expertise. […]

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