Illustration showing particle accelerator collision

The Search for Higgs Boson: The LEP Era

March 16, 2023

With the discovery of W and Z bosons, much of electroweak theory had been confirmed. In 1991, the CERN laboratory turned on a much bigger accelerator, called LEP, to look for Higgs boson. […]

Illustration of structure of an atom as a result of experiments in hadronic collider.

Higgs Field and the Search for W and Z Bosons

March 14, 2023

Modern electroweak theory predicted that there should be a massless photon, a massive neutral particle called Z boson, two massive electrically charged particles called W bosons, and a massive and neutral particle called Higgs boson. […]

Illustration of glowing energy rings

Higgs Boson and the Higgs Field

March 14, 2023

Electromagnetism and weak nuclear force were unified into a combined force called the electroweak force. The electroweak unification predicted four particles that carried the electroweak force and had zero mass. […]

Beta-minus Decay

Neutrinos, Beta Radiation, and Beta Decay

February 23, 2023

Among the most mysterious particles in our universe was a ghostly kind, which would take plenty of time to be detected and understood. These could even cross our bodies with no harm. […]

Equation of Planck quantum theory

Planck Constant: What Is It Good For?

February 7, 2023

In addition to introducing the Planck constant, Max Planck realized that he could take ratios of five fundamental constants using just one unit and thus managed to solve any potential for miscommunication. […]

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